Chemical composition and losses of nutrients involved in sugarcane ensiling with microbial and chemical additives.

There is increasing interest in sugarcane silage as an alternative supplemental feed for cattle, but high losses during the fermentation can affect the viability of this option. The present study evaluated the effects of additives on the composition and nutrient losses in sugarcane ensiling by applying the following six treatments: without additive (CON), with 2 × 106 cfu/g of Lactobacillus buchneri alone (LB) or associated with 2 × 106 cfu/g of Lactobacillus plantarum (LB/PLA), 1.0% urea (LB/URE), 0.5% virgin lime (LB/CAL), and only 0.5% virgin lime (CAL) on an as fed basis. Silos with 18 L capacity were used and the fermentation lasted 104 days. After opening the silos, the dry matter (DM) content of the silage was found to have decreased by 3.9 percentage units on average compared to the initial value. Crude protein (CP) content was higher and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) lower in the (LB/URE) treatment. In the treatments with virgin lime the pH value was higher and the recovery of MS was lower, but equal to that of the treatment LB, in which the effluent losses were greater. The gaseous losses were lower in treatments with only microbial additives. It was concluded that none of the additives evaluated reduce dry matter losses, but the microbial additives reduce gas losses and the virgin lime reduces effluent losses.

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Nutritional characterization of Acacia macracantha foliage preserved in sugarcane molasses.

Was evaluated Acacia macracantha leaves preservation (black Cují or Uveda) sun dried or fresh, with or without molasses, to determine which combination has higher nutritional value and digestibility was evaluated for ruminant animals. A factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design (5 x 4 x 2) in which the factors were: silage time (7, 14, 28, 56 and 112 days), including molasses level (0, 25, 50 and 75% molasses on dry basis) Moisture (sun dried or fresh leaves) with three (3) replicates per treatment generated for a total of 120 experimental units were stored in rigid polyethylene cylindrical micro silo (3.7 liters, at room temperature). Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were determined. The variables obtained were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) were subjected to evaluate the interaction between the factors involved in the different treatments. To determine the differences between means Sheffe test was performed. Six treatments that met adequate from a nutritional standpoint pH, CP, ADF and NDF forage legumes for tropical conditions were selected. The results show that it can retain fresh leaves of Acacia macracantha by 56 and 112 days, with 25% molasses with pH and nutrients for ruminants, suitable for silage making an in vitro digestibility of 54.5% dry matter (fresh silage for 112 days).

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Genetic progress in sheep evaluation in Uruguay.

This study examined the present status and genetic progress achieved in the sheep population of Uruguay between the years 2001 and 2011. Annual genetic gains in the Corriedale, Polwarth, Merilin, Australian Merino, Romney Marsh, and Texel breeds were estimated. The number of breeding flocks evaluated annually increased from 11 to 86, and the number of animals recorded from 3 740 to 25 259. The following traits related to meat and wool production and quality were evaluated: greasy (PVS) and clean (PVL) fleece weight, mean fibre diameter (DPF), staple length (LM), liveweight at weaning (PVD), at shearing (PVE), and at ultrasound scanning (PVAOB); rib eye area (AOB); and backfat thickness (EG). The total number of rams evaluated for breeding value and/or Flock-Testing information would cover 45% of the annual demand for stud service of the national flock. The highest estimated annual gains by breed were: Corriedale, PVD (0.75%), PVE (0.54%), DPF (-0.48%), and PVL (0.41%); Polwarth, PVL (0.80%), PVS (0.72%), and PVE (0.52%); Merilin, PVD and PVE (0.58%); Merino, DPF (-0.64%), PVL (0.54%), and PVE (0.39%); Romney, PVS (1.08%), PVE (0.78%), and PVD (0.72%); and Texel, AOB (1.88%), PVAOB (1.75%), and PVD (1.11%).

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Localization of progesterone receptor isoform A in the uterus of non- pregnant sows and maternal placenta during early gestation.

The progesterone (P4) produced by the corpus luteum, plays a vital role in the preparation, reception of embryos and maintenance of pregnancy. Its effects are mediated by the interaction with its specific intracellular receptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the localization of the progesterone receptor isoform A (PRA) in histological endometrial samples from crossbred pregnant and non pregnant sows, and the relationship with plasma P4 levels. Nonpregnant sows in follicular phase and pregnant sows at days 5, 17 and 35 of gestation (n=16) were used. The localization of the PRA was determined by immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies. In endometrium of nonpregnant and pregnant sows at day 5 of gestation PRA expression was observed in the nuclei of epithelium cells, uterine glands, stroma and myometrium. While on day 17 of gestation PRA expression was found in glands, stroma and myometrium, and on day 35 the expression was observed in the stroma and myometrium. An increase in serum P4 concentrations was found on day 17 of gestation. The localization and variations in the score for PRA in different cell types may reflect a cell specific influence of progesterone, which might be explained by increasing P4 levels during the «window of implantation».

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Valuation of asymmetric IgG antibodies in swine serum and placental extracts.

Antibodies (AC) of the immune system play a role during gestation that has yet to be fully understood. The present investigation focused on the percentage of asymmetric AcIgG united to the lectin concanavalin A relative to total AcIgG, in blood serums and placental extracts of sows at different stages of gestation, utilizing the differential ELISA method. The 45 samples processed were of serum and homogenates of maternal (HoPM) and fetal (HoPF) placenta from sows at 30 d (n = 17), 65-70 d (n = 9), and 95–114 d (n = 6) d of gestation, and from 13 non-pregnant uteri (HoU). The difference between non-pregnant and pregnant sows in percentage (asymmetric AcIgG/total AcIG) in serum (38 ± 3 vs. 37 ± 2), was not significant, but there was a difference (P<0.01) between the two groups at 30 d and 95 d of gestation (32 ± 3 vs. 43 ± 3). As for percentages (asymmetric AcIgG/total AcIgG) in HoPM, the 65 gestation sows significantly surpassed all other groups and those at 95 d gestation were inferior to all other groups. High percentages (asymmetric AcIgG/total AcIgG) were found in HoPF throughout gestation 52 ± 5, 44 ± 3, and 47 ± 4 at 30, 65, and 95 d, respectively). It is suggested that these antibodies were of maternal origen and serve to protect the fetus from its mother’s immune system. We postulate that the presence of asymmetric AcIgG in serum and maternal and fetal placenta functions in regulation of the maternal immune response and is essential for a successful pregnancy.

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Comparison of two methods of progesterone application in a fixed time artificial insemination protocol in beef cows.

Two experiments were conducted at two commercial farms to compare pregnancy rates of nulliparous (n = 178) and primiparous (n = 130; Farm 1), and multiparous (n = 161; Farm 2) Aberdeen Angus cows, when 200 mg s-c of injectable oil-based progesterone (MAD-4) or a 558 mg progesterone releasing intravaginal device (DIV) were used in a fixed time artificial insemination protocol based on estradiol benzoate (EB), prostaglandin (PG), equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and gonadotropin realeasing hormone (GnRH). Primiparous and multiparous cows were weaned 30 d before treatment (60–90 d postpartum). The ovarian status was determined by rectal palpation and the animals classified as cycling or in superficial anoestrus or deep anoestrus. The P4 source affected (P<0.0001) the pregnancy rate of primiparous and multiparous cows, but not that of nulliparous cows (Farm 1: Nulliparous: 51% and 42%; Primiparous: 42% and 10%, DIV and MAD-4, respectively, with a treatment x category interaction (P = 0.0056). Farm 2: DIV: 51% vs. MAD4: 9%, P=0.0001). Independently of the hormonal treatment, the ovarian status influenced pregnancy rates (P<0.0001), cycling cows showed the highest value and cows in deep anoestrus the lowest. No significant treatment x ovarian status interaction was found. It is concluded that replacing the DIV by MAD-4 decreased pregnancy rate of primiparous and multiparous cows, but not that of nulliparous ones.

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Use of robotic cow milking: A review.

This paper seeks to present and discuss some important aspects about robotic milking, in order to aid the decision of technicians and cattlemen as to whether or not they should adopt this technology. A systematic revision was made on the web data bases Isi Web of Science, Scopus and Scielo, searching for papers published in English and Portuguese, using as key-words: Robotic milking and Ordenha Robotizada. Among the 52 papers found none was Brazilian, rather most were from the European continent. Initially we provide a brief historical sketch of the history of robotic milking. Other aspects included are: principles of operation, milking frequency, milk production, milk quality, milking time, and planning.

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